Tag Archives: North American plate

The Ring of Fire: Shaking in Central America

This past Monday 7 July 2014, 1:23:55 UTC, 60 km beneath the Earth’s surface the constant bump and grind of the Cocos tectonic plate as it continuously subducts under the North American plate triggered a M6.9 earthquake near its boundary with the Caribbean plate. Just 2 km NNE of Puerto Madero, Mexico and 204 km west of Guatemala City, Guatemala.

Color-coded map (USGS) showing  intensity of shaking in the region impacted by the MM6.9 earthquake of 7 July 2014 in southern Mexico
Color-coded map (USGS) showing intensity of shaking in the region impacted by the MM6.9 earthquake of 7 July 2014 in southern Mexico
Map (USGS) showing area of impact by the 7 July 2014 MM6.9 earthquake
Map (USGS) showing area impacted by the 7 July 2014 MM6.9 earthquake and some of the affected cities in the region

Initial reports indicate injuries, possible loss of life, and significant damage to buildings and residences in the immediate area, and as far away as Guatemala City. We await further reports from search and rescue operations, and damage assessments, before we may determine just how serious the impact of this seismic event really was.

Map depicting the so-called Ring-of-Fire circumscribing the Pacific  Ocean, which is one of the most seismically active systems in the world
Map depicting the so-called Ring-of-Fire circumscribing the Pacific Ocean, which is one of the most seismically active systems in the world

The region where this event took place is part of the well-known Ring-of-Fire that circumscribes the Pacific Ocean from the southernmost tip of South America up the continent to Central America, Mexico, and Alaska, and around Japan, the Philippines, Indonesia, numerous South Pacific islands, all the way to New Zealand.

Color-coded map showing seismic vulnerability of the region around the area of impact by the NN6.9 of 7 July 2014
Color-coded map showing seismic vulnerability of the region around the area of impact by the NN6.9 of 7 July 2014

The region around the point of impact of the & July earthquake is one of the most active, having generated twelve M7.0 or greater earthquakes  since 1902, a rather high annual probability of 10.7%. The historical record shows a M7.4 as recently as December 2012, a M7.7 in 1942 and a M7.8 in 1902.

Seismicity map (USGS) of Mexico also showing a portion of Guatemala. Clearly the region affected by the MM6.9 earlier this week has a history of similar and worse impacts
Seismicity map (USGS) of Mexico also showing a portion of Guatemala. Clearly the region affected by the MM6.9 earlier this week has a history of similar and worse impacts

Seismicity maps show how vulnerable that region is, so no one should be surprised if it continues to shake into the foreseeable future.

As long as the natural process of plate tectonics is ongoing this region, and the entire periphery of the Ring-of-Fire will continue to experience some persistent level of shaking punctuated here and there, at some intervals, by those M7.0 and higher events. What is clear is that our M6.9 on 7 July was not the big one or anywhere near it.

Map (USGS) showing the various tectonic plates that interact in the region affected by the 7 July 2014 MM6.9 earthquake
Map (USGS) showing the various tectonic plates that interact in the region affected by the 7 July 2014 MM6.9 earthquake

A lot of shaking around the Ring-of-Fire indeed!

Recent Earthquake Activity in Central America and the Caribbean

On Wednesday 5 September 2012 at 8:42 a.m.local time, a M7.6 relatively shallow earthquake hit near the town of Hojancha in the Nicoya Peninsula on the Pacific coastline of Costa Rica. Several aftershocks of lesser magnitude, but at least 4 of M4.5 or higher,  have followed over the course of the last 24 hours. The quake was strong enough to have been felt from the Cosiguina (Gulf of Fonseca) region in northwestern Nicaragua, to the city of David and farther south in Panama, a stretch of more than 1,000 kilometers. The initial quake and the proximity of its epicenter to the Pacific coastline triggered a Tsunami alert from Panama to Nicaragua.

Communications went down right after the initial strong shock and power  was off over a vast region of Costa Rica, including the Central Valley where the capital city of San Jose and other large population centers are located, from 4 to 5 hours making it difficult to obtain direct information about damage from the quake. San Jose is located approximately 150 kilometers to the East of the epicenter of the earthquake.

I was able to communicate with contacts in neighboring Nicaragua about one hour after the M7.6 quake and obtain some additional information about the impact, and a damage report from that country. I was already making arrangements to use amateur radio to try and connect with contacts in Costa Rica when I was able to finally make contact, via cell phone and social media, with relatives in San Jose at 11:45 a.m. local time or about 3 hours after the initial quake.

An initial damage report form San Jose, Costa Rica, showed at least two deaths attributed to the quake, strong shaking during the first seismic impact causing multistory buildings to sway strongly, minor cracks on walls, and objects to fall off shelves, but no significant structural damage to buildings or residences. In addition, the electric power grid went down, as well as the land-line telephone system, while the cellular system continued to operate, but was quickly overwhelmed by the volume of calls. Because the hour of the earthquake coincided with morning-time work and school traffic, this and the lack of power resulted in chaotic driving conditions. Panic and frustration among the general population was widespread. By the time I was able to make contact, the tsunami alert had been lifted already.

So, what is going on with this seismic activity in Costa Rica?  This M7.6 and its aftershocks all took place in the Caribbean Tectonic Plate near the Central American Trench where the Cocos Plate subducts under the Caribbean Plate at a rate of 75 to 80 mm/year. So, in order to put this recent seismic activity of 5 September 2012 in Costa Rica in some form of context, I propose to take a closer look at what has been happening in the Caribbean Plate recently.

The Caribbean Plate is located at the confluence of five tectonic plates in a region that borders the well-known Pacific Rim of Fire, where there is constant and complex interaction between the several plates. because of such ongoing process of plate interactivity, the Caribbean Plate has a history of vulcanism and seismic activity going back thousands of years that continues today. The Caribbean Plate encompasses almost the totality of Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Jamaica, the Island of Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Puerto Rico, The U.S. and the British Virgin Islands, and the Lesser Antilles, as well as most of the Caribbean Sea.

By reviewing records of earthquakes kept by the Earthquake center of the U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS), which list all earthquakes of magnitude M2.5 or higher taking place worldwide I discovered that during a 130 hour period from 31 August 2012 through 5 September 2012 there were a total of 484 earthquakes M2.5 or higher worldwide, and of these just above 30% of 146 hit in the Caribbean Plate. This is indeed a high rate of seismicity  specially when we take into account the areas (spatial extent) involved.

Based on the epicenter coordinates for each of these earthquakes we can see that most of this recent activity has taken place along the northeastern end of the Caribbean Plate, around Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, but a total of nine countries or their territorial waters have been hit by at least one of these earthquakes during the period in question.

The tables that follow classify these 146 earthquakes by location and by magnitude:

The 130 hour period used for the tables above is really only a snapshot of the earthquake activity that goes on in the Caribbean Plate. Clearly such seismic activity continues, and in fact in the additional 100 hours since the end of the period covered by these tables to the late evening (UTC) on 9 September 2012 , as I write this notes, the USGS record already lists 70 additional earthquakes M2.5 of higher that have hit somewhere in the Caribbean Plate, including several aftershocks in the same region of Costa Rica hit by the M7.6 on 5 September. So there have been a total of 216 earthquakes of M2.5 or higher in a period of 240 hours, or pretty close to one an hour. A lot of shaking indeed, specially when we realize there are many times that number if we were to include earthquakes below magnitude 2.5. Such lower magnitude earthquakes are not normally included in these records, because most of them are so weak that they are not even felt by humans and cause no noticeable damage to buildings and infrastructure.

Coincidentally perhaps, the pattern of seismic activity in the Caribbean Plate bears some similarity to what took place toward the end of 2009 and early in 2010 before the January 2010 M7.0 earthquake that devastated western Haiti, including its capital city of Port-au-Prince. During that episode of seismic activity most earthquake events took place around Puerto Rco and the Virgin Islands, with some hits in or near the coasts of Nicaragua, el Salvador and Costa Rica, and additional events off the coast of Honduras  and then in the Island of Hispaniola. From this we may conclude that earthquake activity in the Caribbean Plate is the norm rather than the exception, and we should not be surprised if new seismic events continue to take place in this region.

Because some of the neighboring plates are subducting beneath the Caribbean Plate along its western border, along the central American Trench, but also along its northeastern and portions of its eastern borders with the Atlantic, there has been a long episode of mountain building and vulcanism, which is evident today as a long chain of volcanoes near the Pacific coast line stretching from Guatemala to Costa Rica and Panama, as well as mountain ranges and abrupt topography in Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and in the Virgin Islands.

One of the many volcanoes product of such plate tectonic processes, Volcano San Cristobal, in Nicaragua has entered quite an active eruptive phase over the past few days that has prompted the evacuation of thousands of residents in the provinces of Chinandega and Leon in Nicaragua and a state of emergency issued by the Government of Nicaragua. San Cristobal with a height of 1745 mt (5725+ ft) is the tallest volcano in Nicaragua, and it has been active since 1525. This volcano is the youngest of a complex of five volcanic edifices, which originated in the Pleistocene.  Just a few kilometer to the west of San Cristobal,  on the extreme northwestern point of Nicaragua along the Pacific coastal plain, we find what remains of Volcano Cosiguina now 900 mt high, which in 1835 had an explosive eruption that blew its top 700 meters off and rivaled that of Krakatau in Indonesia. Ash and ejecta material from the 1835 eruption have been found as far away a Jamaica and Costa Rica, and it was so voluminous that it altered the global climate and specially so in Nicaragua, where 1835 was subsequently known as the year of the smoke!

In closing it is important to answer the question many are asking, specially in Nicaragua, regarding whether the eruption of San Cristobal and the M7.6 earthquake and subsequent aftershocks in Costa Rica are related coming, as they have just a couple of days apart from one another? While no one can say that the volcanic eruption in Nicaragua was triggered by the earthquake activity in Costa Rica, what is certain is that both events are byproducts of the ongoing natural process of plate tectonics involving the Caribbean Plate and its interaction with The Cocos, Nazca, South American and North American plates, and related sub-processes of subduction, faulting, vulcanism etc.

As I am about to place the final period in this article, I am receiving reports of currently ongoing rather mild earthquake activity just northwest of Managua, in the peninsula of Chiltepe in Lake Xolotlan (Managua), where the remnants craters of ancient volcanoes are part of the striking landscape near the capital city of Nicaragua. While this earthquake swarm near Managua has only reached magnitudes of M1.5 to M2.0, it is nevertheless evidence on the continuous process that makes the Caribbean Plate and all countries on it so vulnerable to earthquake and/or volcanic activity.